Collateral Events


  • Multiple events in a log that refer to a single process step within a case
  • May result from
    • Event log being constructed from multiple sources each of which has its own way of recording the same process step
    • Underlying system being programmed to fire a set of auxiliary events when a specific event occurs
    • Granularity of recording is very fine grained
  • These events occur independently, with their own labels and may have slightly different timestamps


  • Creates ‘noise’ in the data
  • Not uncommon for this pattern to result in highly-complex process mining results (e.g. overly complex models) that hinder the extraction of meaningful conclusions
    • Complex model generated as multiple events that refer to the same process step yield distinct steps in the model

Data Quality Issues

I27 - Irrelevant data: event
  • The inclusion of multiple low-level activities results in the masking of the actual business process step through the inclusion of multiple events in the log

Manifestation and Detection

  • Pattern signature — groups of events with timestamps that are very close to each other. The labels of these activities may be very similar to each other or are of logical consequences from one another, and, from the perspective of a domain expert, these events do not represent a distinct process step


  • Development of knowledge base with information on which events to merge and what event to merge them into as well as what timestamp to use
  • Requires insight from domain experts and into systems as to how events are created and stored