Pattern 5 (Textual Annotation)

FLASH animation of Textual Annotation pattern


This pattern denotes the availability of features to visually represent free-form text in the canvas, which can be attached to modeling elements without changing semantics.


To add domain-specific information (e.g. annotating an automated task with a text caption to explicate the task’s inner working).


Textual annotations can either improve understand- ing of diagrams as comments can improve understanding of source code [42] or augment the model with further informa- tion such as time, cost, or quality [54].


UML and BPMN provide a visual construct to attach free-form text to modeling elements called, respectively, Comment and Text Annotation. This construct is supported by the main UML and BPMN editors (see e.g. Enterprise Architect, Intalio|Designer, ARIS and Oryx). Many modeling editors offer proprietary features to visualize free-form text, e.g., ARIS and Protos have text areas while Oryx has Text Notes for eEPCs.


The model in Figure 6 is also annotated with text captions to highlight those tasks that require access to an SAP system, to list all possible mismatches, and to indicate the procedure to follow in case of blocked invoices (all with explicative purpose).